The Anzio beachhead is at the northwestern end of a tract of reclaimed marshland, formerly the Pontine Marshes, now the Pontine Fields (Agro Pontino). January 22, 1944 was the start of the Battle of Anzio, a battle that was part of the Italian Theater of World War II. January 22, 1944 was the start of the Battle of Anzio, a battle that was part of the Italian Theater of World War II. Battle of Anzio. But according to Keegan, Lucas's actions "achieved the worst of both worlds, exposing his forces to risk without imposing any on the enemy.". The infamous battle of Anzio lasted from January 22, 1944 to May 29, 1944. They question whether the initial landing of just over two infantry divisions, with no supporting armour, had the strength to achieve the objectives: of cutting Route 6 and then holding off the inevitable counterattacks that would come, as Kesselring redeployed his forces. [66], On May 26, while the VI Corps was initiating its difficult maneuver, Kesselring threw elements of four divisions into the Velletri gap to stall the advance on Route 6. However, by the end of January 22, the lack of aggressive action convinced him that a defence could be made. The trap was left open. The 1944 Battle of Anzio stemmed from the Allied attempt to draw German troops off the Gustav Line during Operation Shingle. The gun crew fought back with shellfire and shot down five German planes.[23]. The infamous battle of Anzio lasted from January 22, 1944 to May 29, 1944. It did not immediately work as planned. Winston Churchill was clearly displeased with this action. "[14] The "amateur" can only have referred to Winston Churchill, architect of the disastrous Gallipoli landings of World War I and personal advocate of Shingle. He had ignored the orders of Field Marshall Alexander in a decision as militarily stupid as it was insubordinate. Of the four scenarios prepared by Truscott, Operation Buffalo called for an attack through Cisterna, into the gap in the hills and to cut Route 6 at Valmontone. [65], There has never been any doubt in my mind that had General Clark held loyally to General Alexander's instructions, had he not changed the direction of my attack to the north-west on May 26, the strategic objectives of Anzio would have been accomplished in full. I would not comply with the order without first talking to General Clark in person. However, this being deemed problematic, President Roosevelt granted permission for the craft to remain until February 5. Nevertheless, few additional defenders arrived on January 23, although the arrival on the evening of January 22 of Lieutenant General Alfred Schlemm and his 1st Parachute Corps headquarters brought greater organisation and purpose to the German defensive preparations. The marshes were turned into cultivatable land in the 1930s under Benito Mussolini. The Battle of Anzio was a battle of the Italian Campaign of World War II that took place from January 22, 1944 (beginning with the Allied amphibious landing known as Operation Shingle) to June 5, 1944 (ending with the capture of Rome). How many were built in the United States by 1943? Anzio was a campaign, rather than a battle, taking just over 5 months. #MemDayPBS . One group moved to By early February German forces in Fourteenth Army had 100,000 troops. For weeks a rain of shells fell on the beach, the marsh, the harbour, and on anything else observable from the hills, with little distinction between forward and rear positions. The Allied ground commander in chief, General Sir Harold Alexander, concluded that he could not take Rome unless the Allies initiated an amphibious end run and weakened the Cassino front by drawing off German troops manning the Gustav Line. See more ideas about Anzio, Wwii, Medal of honor recipients. General Harold Alexanderhad thought of a plan using five divisions. He had written on February 10 to General Alexander[37] encouraging him to exert his authority and Alexander had visited the beachhead on February 14 to tell Lucas he wished for a breakout as soon as the tactical situation allowed. It was part of the battle of Anzio that followed Operation Shingle. Whe… Anzio 22 January-24 May 1944 During the early morning hours of 22 January 1944, troops of the Fifth Army swarmed ashore on a fifteen-mile stretch of Italian beach near the prewar resort towns of Anzio and Nettuno. [5] By January he had recovered and was badgering his commanders for a plan of attack, accusing them of not wanting to fight but of being interested only in drawing pay and eating rations. The 6615th Ranger Force attacked the port, while the 3rd Army Infantry Division landed south of town. For four days they slugged it out against 3rd Division until finally withdrawing on May 30, having kept Route 6 open and allowed seven divisions from 10th Army to withdraw and head north of Rome. From 1939 to 1945, the majority of the world's countries battled it out. In the morning of February 4 the situation was becoming more serious, with the 1st Battalion, Irish Guards (of 24th Guards Brigade), only having one cohesive rifle company left and on the opposite side of the salient, the 6th Battalion, Gordon Highlanders (of 2nd Brigade) was beginning to crumble and later lost three complete companies as prisoners. On May 5, Alexander selected Buffalo and issued Clark with orders to this effect. The British 1st Infantry Division landed north of Anzio. Seize and secure a beachhead in the vicinity of Anzio 2. The final plan called for Lucas to lead the US VI Corps in a landing in the Anzio area, followed by an advance into the Alban Hills, to cut German communications and "threaten the rear of the German XIV Panzer Corps"[citation needed] (under Fridolin von Senger und Etterlin). Three days after the landings, the beachhead was surrounded by a defence line consisting of three divisions: The 4th Parachute Division to the west, the 3rd Panzer Grenadier Division to the center in front of Alban Hills, the Hermann Göring Panzer Division to the east. George Patton, 31 May 1944. Although controversy continues regarding what might have happened if Lucas had been more aggressive from the start, most commentators agree that the initial plan for Anzio was flawed. Operation Shingle would require the use of landing ships necessary for these operations. [58], At 5:45 a.m. May 23, 1944, 1,500 Allied artillery pieces commenced bombardment. Thirteen Allied troops were killed, and 97 wounded; about 200 Germans had been taken as POWs. Members of former Blackshirt Lieutenant-Colonel Degli Oddi's "Vendetta" helped defeat a determined effort by the U.S. 3rd Infantry Division to overrun their positions and captured a number of prisoners. After attempts to overcome the Germans in the Liri Valley and at Anzio ended in stalemate, the Allies struggled to capture the western anchor of the Gustav ...read more, Dunkirk is a small town on the coast of France that was the scene of a massive military campaign during World War II. It is known as the deadliest conflict in human history. [27] After making exploratory probes on the Campoleone salient on the afternoon of February 3 the German forces launched a full counterattack at 23:00[28] in order to reduce the salient and "iron out" the front line. 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