MiR156 targets an important gene in fruit ripening, colorless never ripe (CNR), as reported by Molesini etÂ al. Although it positively regulates fruit ripening, it also negatively regulates ethylene synthesis (Karlova etÂ al., 2013). The greatest achievement in the field of agriculture is the development of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insect-resistant crops using plant transgenic technology. If the timely spray is not done the crops of the region may vanish. The Jat farmers who came to India from Pakistan in 1947 were found more industrious and superior in techniques of cultivation in comparison to the other farmers of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. Various types of proteinase inhibitors such as potato protease inhibitors II, cowpea trypsin inhibitors(CpTi), etc. Copyright 10. High-yield Crops High-yield agricultural crops are those that have been bred, genetically modified, or fertilized to increase their production yields. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Yield and yield consistency: select soybean varieties that are high yielding in public and private variety trials. The Bt gene encodes the delta-endotoxin highly toxic to lepidopteran insects. In fact, there are innovative and hardworking farmers within a village who perform better than their orthodox neighbours whose efficiency may be comparatively low. Pesticides are chemical substances applied to control pest populations. KEYWORDS High-yielding rice, grain yield, total In fact, in the absence of controlled irrigation chemical fertilizers cannot be applied with confidence and many a times their application affects the crop adversely, particularly if the soil is not sufficiently moist. Weeds are the plant species which compete with crop plants for resources and reduce growth, yield, and quality (Ashiq and Aslam, 2014). The yield potential of these varieties was greater in the temperate regions of Asia and in the dry season in the monsoon region than in the humid tropics, because of the longer hours of sunshine and hence the greater potential photosynthesis available to the plant. Irrigation is thus the single most important input on which depends the success or failure of a crop. Other than yield losses, weeds may also harbor other pests and pathogens and enhance their incidents on crops (Booth et al., 2003). Significant advances have been made in the genetic engineering of rice since the first transgenic rice plants reported in the late 1980s. There is little disagreement that the Green Revolution acted to reduce agricultural biodiversity, as it relied on just a few high-yield varieties of each crop. The old mills and factories are unable to handle the increased supplies of wheat and rice. ScienceDirect Â® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. 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URL:Â https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128104392000106, URL:Â https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128115275000022, URL:Â https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128181621000110, URL:Â https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780857090393500086, URL:Â https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080430767041577, URL:Â https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081005965002134, URL:Â https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128104392000039, URL:Â https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065211317300858, Genetic Improvement of Vegetables Using Transgenic Technology, Genetic Engineering of Horticultural Crops, Schnepf and Whiteley, 1981; Jain etÂ al., 2007, Whetstone and Hammock, 2007; Van Damme, 2008, Cooper etÂ al., 2004; Nelson etÂ al., 2004; Moose and Mumm, 2008, Handbook of Herbs and Spices (Second Edition), Volume 1, International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, Gene Silencing in Horticultural Transgenic Crops, Sharda Choudhary, ... Radheshyam Sharma, in, Postharvest losses deteriorate the quality and economic viability of many, Meli etÂ al., 2010; Molesini etÂ al., 2012; Karlova etÂ al., 2013, Limitations of Existing Weed Control Practices Necessitate Development of Alternative Techniques Based on Biological Approaches. Use locally adapted varieties to ensure good crop establishment and high yield with acceptable grain quality for market. Plagiarism Prevention 4. The principal characteristic of the HYVs were their high response to chemical fertilizers. (2012). Qingyao Shu, Dianxing Wu, in Reference Module in Food Science, 2016. At first the new varieties were highly susceptible to disease, and pesticides were necessary to obtain the high yield potential, but later varieties have been bred with a greater resistance to pests. This resulted into heavy losses to the farmers of the region. This in turn has been accelerated by advances in digital technology applied through biostatistics and bioinformatics. Any slackness in the work of agricultural machinery may make the agriculture a less profitable pursuit. These varieties require irrigation after every three weeks during the period of growth and development and after every two weeks at the flowering and primordial stages. To evaluate different varieties of rice for their growth and The highest Î²-carotene content reached 1.6Â Î¼g per g in rice grains. HYV - High yielding varieties. Many insect-resistant plant varieties have been developed through cloning genes encoding proteinase inhibitors (Kim etÂ al., 2009) and amylase inhibitors (Mehrabadi etÂ al., 2010). High yielding varieties of maize have also proved successful and to a lesser extent new varieties of sorghum. Advances in genetics and genomics have fostered a revolution in genome-level understanding of crops (Cooper etÂ al., 2004; Nelson etÂ al., 2004; Moose and Mumm, 2008). The list of 310 new crop varieties includes two bacterial leaf blight disease resistant rice (Pusa 1592 and Punjab Basmati-3), one blast disease resistant variety of rice (Pusa 1609), seedless variety of Nagpur orange, high temperature tolerant garden pea (Arka Relative yield of varieties Trials are conducted using uniform protocols and standard check varieties. The criteria for selection are high yield, disease resistance, response to fertilisers, tolerance to climate, etc. The first irrigation to wheat around the third week of sowing alone raises yield by as much as 30 per cent than that when it is delayed. Many wild species of plants, animals, and microorganisms emerged as pests of crop plants due to destruction of their natural habitats. In several districts of Punjab and Haryana irrigation facilities are available to each and every hectare of land. Direct methods employ all the techniques primarily aimed at weed control (Shad, 2015), including manual, mechanical, chemical, and biological. Adoption of new needs and intensification of agriculture in the subtropical countries like India (characterized with erratic monsoon) are not possible unless adequate irrigation facilities are available. At the same time, decreased levels of ethylene in RNAi-ACS fruits lead to altered levels of various ripening-specific transcripts (i.e., upregulation of PA biosynthesis, ascorbic acid metabolism genes, and downregulation of cell wall hydrolyzing enzyme genes). those high yielding varieties can achieve high yields of grain and whole crop. The big farmers of Punjab and Haryana are, however, applying heavy doses of chemical fertilizers. The new seeds are very delicate and highly susceptible to pests and disease. HYV give rise to short stemmed, stiff strawed plants that respond well to heavy dozes of fertilizers. Evaluate varieties for yield consistency from location to location and year to year to ensure for robust, high performance. Availability of electric power which is the nucleous of all technological development is imperative for multiple cropping under the HYV programme. Crop pests include weeds, insects, pathogens, and rodents. These costly inputs may go as a waste after the floods resulting from heavy rains. Although a few improved high-yielding varieties of cardamom have been evolved, combining yield and cardamom mosaic resistance has not been possible. high-yield variety Crop that has been specially bred or selected to produce more than the natural varieties of the same species. The irrigation fields enriched with heavy energy input of NPK create a micro climate (hot and humid) in the field which helps in the luxurious growth of plants. Proteinase inhibitors have been found very effective in controlling the growth and development of many insects by inactivating serine proteinase enzymes of the insect (Larry and Richard, 2002). Each year, insects destroy about 25% of food crops worldwide. They pose the biggest challenge to food production worldwide since the start of agriculture. Subsequently, GE tomato and eggplant/brinjal were developed and tested under field conditions in different countries. The experts and researchers who attempted to assess the role of human element in the adoption of agricultural innovations found great variations in the agricultural practices and yield levels of different farmers living within a micro region of a village. Root hairs of Chenopodium murale L. released allelochemicals (Dmitrovic et al., 2014), which disturbed cell growth cycles and caused oxidative damage to wheat and Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. They should advance loans to the farmers at a reasonable rate of interest. High-yielding varieties are frequently also high-maintenance varieties. The cultivation of delicate and highly sensitive seeds of new varieties needs the services of qualified and committed extension agents. The National Variety Release Committee (NVRC) approved the … Newer approaches are needed to meet the great increase in food production necessitated by population growth in developing countries. High Yielding Varieties Seeds are undoubtedly land substituting, water economizing, more labour using, and employment generating innovation; nevertheless, they are very delicate and sensitive and therefore require a great deal of care if a successful harvest is to be obtained. Read formulas, definitions, laws from Biotechnology for Improved Food Quality here. The yield capacity of each variety is given as a percentage of the control varieties (which themselves are proven varieties of a number of years standing), which is rated as 100. Tasawar Abbas, ... Robert J. Kremer, in Advances in Agronomy, 2018. Availability of capital is also a vital constraint in the adoption and successful cultivation of HYV. The response of traditional varieties to chemical fertilizers is more in terms of vigorous vegetative growth which leads to pre-harvest lodging of the crop. Introduction of such high-yielding varieties of wheat depends crucially on the availability of fertilisers, adequate water supply, pesticides and insecticides. The hot and moist environment of the field also becomes conducive for the fast growth and multiplication of insects and pests. In this world of competition, only those are marching ahead who are progressive, innovative, receptive and efficient, while the conservative and less progressive are left behind. In a region like the Indo-Gangetic plain where agriculture is being practiced for over the last 8000 years the soils are depleted and are increasingly losing their resilient characteristics. Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. For the recuperation of fertility, the soils are rested in the form of fallowing or they are enriched by applying manures (compost and green) and chemical fertilizers (NPK). Although, it involves centuries old practices, a major breakthrough in pest control was the development of pesticides. Raising of three and four crops from the same field in one year is possible only if modern technology is available to the farmer. The variations in yield and production also determine the assets building process of the farmers. To meet water requirements, there must be a controlled source of water at the disposal of farmers. Click here to learn the concepts of Important High Yield Crop Varieties from Biology Put a tick mark against the correct alternative in the following statements : Hybrid varieties of High yielding cultivars of crops depleted soils of nutrients and precious organic matter. In the case of rice, inadequacy of moisture in the primordial initiation (flowering, milking and grain forming stages) can reduce production to the extent of 50 per cent. Moreover, the fluctuations in prices of agricultural commodities reduce the margin of profit of the growers which may work as disincentive for the cultivation of HYV. Weed management in arable lands involves direct and indirect methods. Before rust resistant varieties were developed, many areas treated wheat growing so high risk, they avoided growing the crop altogether. It grows The Bt cry protein is nontoxic to humans and animals, but toxic to insects (BANR, 2000). There is winter and spring varieties available. As discussed more thoroughly in Section 7.1, most stability measures relate to either of two contrasting concepts of stability: “static” (Type 1) and “dynamic” (Type 2) (Becker and Léon, 1988; Lin et al. Therefore, the results of intergeneric crosses are not encouraging (Krishnamurthy et al., 1989, Madhusoodanan et al., 1990). Buy varieties that say they are compact or “bush” varieties. The transgenic approach provides a novel way for rice breeders to use genes other than those from rice and its relatives. Ethylene suppression brings compositional changes to the fruits by enhancing polyamine (PA) levels. In the adoption and spread of HYV the role of human factor is also very important. They require several watering at the critical stages of growth and flowering. Domestication of wild plants triggered manipulation of nature for agricultural practices. The poor and small farmers are thus deprived of the required inputs, so essential for the successful cultivation of HYV of wheat and rice. Excessive rainfall, immediately after the application of chemical fertilizers or that of plant protection chemicals, reduces their utility and effectiveness. Once a village is linked with a town by a metalled road, its economy undergoes a remarkable transformation. The downregulation of ACS homologs using RNAi can be an effective approach for obtaining delayed ripening with longer shelf-life and an enhanced processing quality of tomato fruits, because of the reduced rate of softening. In the areas exclusively dependent on rains (Brahmaputra Valley) and in the dry farming areas (Rajasthan, Marathwada, etc.) This means that when fertilizers are supplied to high yielding varieties their yield increases substantially. Similarly, the Jats, Saini and Gadas of western Uttar Pradesh are more enterprising and receptive to new innovations in agriculture. It is a potent insecticide and very much toxic to lepidopterans (Cohen etÂ al., 2000), dipterans (Andrews etÂ al., 1987), and coleopterans (Herrnstadt etÂ al., 1986). Consequently, the HYV in such areas either could not be diffused or they are not performing satisfactorily. 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